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Different theoretical views about the development of “maleness” and “femaleness”.


Gender: Identity and roles

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Learning Objectives

· Define sex, gender, gender identity, and gender role.

· Explain how concepts of masculinity and femininity vary by society and culture.

· Discuss how the following environmental influences mold masculinity and femininity: societal expectations, parents, television, and school.

· Review different theoretical views about the development of “maleness” and “femaleness”.

· Describe masculine and feminine stereotypes and norms and the problems they create.

· Discuss gender-role influences in interpersonal relationships between men and women.

· Discuss differing expectations and attitudes of various ethnic groups; how race, class, and gender are related; gender roles in the family; and the way gender roles affect housework and child care in families.

· Describe how marital quality can be influences by gender-role expectations.

· Define androgyny and identify its possible advantages and disadvantages.

Chapter Summary

1. Sex refers to one’s biological identity, male or female. Gender includes those psychosocial components that characterize one as masculine or feminine. Gender identity is an individual’s personal. Internal sense of maleness or femaleness that is expressed in personality and behavior. A gender role is the outward expression of one’s maleness or femaleness in a social setting.

2. Environmental influences are a major determinant of gender identities and gender roles. Society defines the qualities of maleness and femaleness expected of men and women. Three major influences on children’s individual gender identities and roles are parents, television, and school.

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