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A theoretical framework for understanding the socialization process.

Consider your own race. In a 1-2 page essay, describe what you feel your race must acknowledge in order for race relations to improve.


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Module 2 Learning Objectives

  •  To understand why some people are treated differently in the workplace because of their group memberships.
  • To provide a theoretical framework for understanding the socialization process.
  • To understand that there is a range of saliency and variation among the members of any social identity group.
  • To understand the complexity of multiple group identities.
  • To understand why changes in the workplace have led to issues of inclusion for some employees and managers.


Keywords & Concepts

Please familiarize yourself with the following keywords and concepts:

  • Social Identity
  • Primary Dimensions
  • Secondary Dimensions
  • Racial Prejudice
  • Institutional Racism
  • Racial Profiling


Module 2 Reading Assignments

  • Harvey and Allard:
    • Section II – Understanding the Primary Dimensions of Diversity: Race and Ethnicity
    • Section III – Understanding the Primary Dimensions of Diversity: Age, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Physical and Mental Challenges
  • Coyle: Skill #2 Share Vulnerability


Module 2: Additional Study Notes

Notes from the Harvey and Allard Text

Racial Diversity

Racial Identity Development: The degree to which a person feels at one with, or connected with, the experiences of a racial group. To explore multiculturalism in the classroom, see “Thriving in a Multicultural Classroom” (page 60).

Generational Diversity

Diverse generations are working together in today’s workplace. As many as five different generations are expected to communicate, collaborate, form cohesive teams that focus on creativity, innovation, and complex problem-solving. According to the article, “Generational Diversity in the Workplace” in our Harvey and Allard (2015), “Employers must be aware of the strengths and assets that each generation as a group brings to their organizations and become skilled in dealing with individuals from each generation as subordinates, supervisors, and customers” (p. 111) Without proactive leadership, adversarial environments are formed which have proven to be counterproductive and enmity producing.

Review the following articles included in our Harvey and Allard Text:
  • “Generational Diversity in the Workplace” (p.111)
  • “Exploring the Gender Gap: What are the Issues?” (p. 120)
Gender Diversity
  • Vertical Segregation: When both genders are working in the same industries, but men are perceived as being more capable, skillful, and qualified for better paying and more upwardly mobile line positions than women.
  • Glass Ceiling: A woman’s inability to advance into higher-level, executive positions.
  • Transactional Leadership:  Goal-directed leadership
  • Transformational Leadership: Relationship-oriented leadership
  • Definition of Dominant Masculinity: The ability to excel at competition and risk, be self-assured, withhold emotions, possess physical strength, have control over the situations men inhabit, be the breadwinners of families, and not act feminine or be gay.
    • Privileges of Dominant Masculinity are discussed beginning on page 135 of our Harvey and Allard text.
    • Negative Consequences of Dominant Masculinity are discussed beginning on page 137 of our Harvey and Allard Text
LGBT Diversity

Notes from “Sorting through Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in the American Workplace” (p.142) in our Harvey and Allard Text

  • Lesbian and gay: Sexually attracted to people of the same sex
  • Bisexuals: Sexually attracted to both sexes, but may function primarily as homosexual or heterosexual
  • Transgenderism: Refers to a person who does not conform to traditional gender norms. Transgender issues are often grouped under the term “gender identity” and gender expression”
  • Points of Law: See page 146 of the Harvey and Allard text

Important Points from CoyleText- Skill #2 Share Vulnerability

“Building habits of group vulnerability is like building a muscle. It takes time, repetition, and the willingness to feel pain in order to achieve gains” (Coyle, 2018, p158).

Workout” Ideas to Build Group Vulnerability
  • Make sure the Leader is Vulnerable First and Often: Group cooperation is created by small, frequent moments of vulnerability.
  • Overcommunicate Expectations: Be persistent and explicit about sending clear signals that establish expectations, demonstrate cooperation, align language and roles.

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